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Bobwhite Quail
Colinus virginianus Most wide ranging of quail species. Found primarily in Midwest, Southern and Eastern US. Also. in small pockets in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and the foothills of the Rockies and Southern Arizona. Prefers abandoned farms and fields, brushy cover and edges of woodlands. Reddish brown coloration with short gray tail. Male has white throat and white band above eye extending down the neck. Female is similar, but duller. Her markings are more buff colored. No plume on either sex.

Call: A whistled bob-bob-white.

California Quail
Lophortyx californicus The California quail, the state bird of California, is also known as valley quail. Found in a wide range of habitat zones. Prefers mixed woodlands, chaparral and grassy valleys of Baha, California, Oregon, Washington into British Columbia, and extending into several bordering states. Male has black throat and faced bordered by white bands, white forehead. Female is duller, lacks head markings. Both sexes have forward curving distinctive plume or top knot.

Call: Three notes, mid note highest - Chi - caa - go.

Gambel's Quail
Lophortyx gambelli
The Gambel's quail is sometimes called desert quail due to its preferred habitat. The Gambel's quail is also found in California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah. Found primarily in arid or desert areas, The Gambel's prefers to live in brush close to water, frequently thickets of hackberry and mesquite. Similar in appearance to California quail. Male Gambel's differ from California male by exhibiting a prominent black patch on a creme white belly and a reddish head top. The female has creme white belly which identifies her from the California which has a brown belly. Both sexes exhibit forward sloping plumes.

Call: similar to California's.

Masked Bobwhite Quail
Colinus virginanus ridgwayi
The masked bobwhite, a subspecies of bobwhite, is both typical and unique as bobwhites go and is on the endangered species list. It whistles ¨°bobwhite¨® during the breeding season, forms roosting circles at night and eats seeds, insects and greens. Historically, the masked bobwhite ranged from the grassy plains of southern Arizona to Sonora, Mexico. Currently, reintroduced populations of the masked bobwhite reside in Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge and two ranches in Sonora. Coloration of the male provides the most striking contrast between the masked bobwhite and other subspecies. The males have black-hooded heads and their breast feathers are reddish-brown. The females are colored like other bobwhite subspecies.

Call: A whistled "bob-bob-white"

Montezuma Quail
Cyrtonyz montezumae
Also known as Mearns'or Harlequin quail. Found in Southwest from Southern Arizona to Texas and Mexico. Prefers open woodland mountain slopes and bunch grassy slopes. Male has distinctive harlequin marked face pattern and somewhat bug-eyed look. Has slight crest, but often not erect. Heavy white spotting on flanks. Female duller, brown face: has subtle pattern of male. Both sexes short tailed.

Call: Soft whistle or whinny. Akin to a screech owl's call.

Mountain Quail
Oreortyx pictus
The mountain quail is the largest of North American quails. Its range is most extensive in the Pacific Northwest. The major mountain quail hunting states are California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon and Washington. The mountain quail inhabits higher elevations where it prefers brush, scrub oaks and thickets. Tall, thin, slightly backward tilting head plume is distinctive in both sexes. Male exhibits chestnut throat coloration. Female is duller.

Call: a whistle or loud, almost crowing, note or soft "whook."

Scaled Quail
Callipepla Squamata
Often called blue quail, the scaled quail prefers to escape on foot, and when flushed does not fly far. Eastern Colorado and southwestern Kansas mark the northern limit of its range, which also includes the Oklahoma panhandle, the western half of Texas, and most of New Mexico and Arizona. Scaled quail habitat typically consists of arid country with sparse grasslands. Sexes similar looking. No plume, instead a white topped crest extending from mid-head to rear of head and beyond on both sexes. Grayish black, scaled underside.

Call: Two syllable.

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